If you read Peter Attia's Straight dope on cholesterol he seems to think the LDL particle number is the number one risk factor for athrosclerosis. Whether you choose to believe that is another story. I know people tend to pick and choose what markers are more important depending on their bias.
But my question is, do many people on this diet have a low ldl particle number? Basically everyone who has had this type of testing on paleo forums has a ldl-p of over 1000, sometimes over 2000, depsite having low trigs and high HDL.
I've noticed this too. I've been doing a very low carb nutritional ketosis paleo experiment and checked my cholesterol and found that they were super high, and when I checked with the NMR, the LDL-P was high also. I did some looking around and saw that I wasnt' the only case and there are some theories out there... with no definitive answers.
Here are the main ones I came across:
Increased consumption of saturated fats -> Increased liver production of fats -> High serums cholesterol
Deficiency in certain micronutrients such as choline and copper -> Through some unknown mechanism -> High serum cholesterol
Natural response of the body being in ketosis is to mobilize more fat for energy -> Higher serum cholesterol
Chronic low carb -> Hypothyroidism (low T3) -> Decreased expression of LDL receptors in the liver -> Higher serum cholesterol
I'm currently in the process of trying to figure this all out and have pretty much ruled out #1 as a cause in my case.
If you want to read more you can check out the cholesterol posts that I've written in which I try to work all this out:
I've never had an NMR done, but after a lipid panel which showed high total cholesterol (324) and high LDL (209), I got an Apo-B test, which was also high (163). Thyroid checked out fine. My other lipid numbers are awesome: very high HDL, very low triglycerides. So by some measures I'm at high risk, and by others I'm at very low risk. Quite confusing. There seems to be quite a few paleo eaters who have similar numbers.
Sounds like interesting data to me. Chris Kresser advocates LDL-P<1000 and paleo-type diets, which tends to support it's happening in reasonable quantities in his patients.
Of course high LDL contributes to LDL-P, even with low trigs, high HDL. And often those getting LDL-P tested and posting them on forums will have high LDL.
One concern are those that might have high LDL-P and CW good looking lipid panel, but don't get LDL-P tested.
My total cholesterol was super low, like 145, and my HDL was 75, despite eating lots of fat. I also eat quite a bit of fructose and trigs were only 32. I might have an infection of sorts because this doesn't seem right at all. Or some of us just react differently to fat intake.