The answers by Matte and Wisper are excellant. I do two sets each week of squat, bench, deadlift, chin-up, and dumbell shoulder-presses. During the warmer months I work out at home in my driveway and replace dumbell shoulder-presses with clean and jerks but it's not practical at the gym we lift at so dumbells are an easily repeatable lift at the gym. It depends on which day me and my boys can hit the gym but I usually divide those lifts over three days. I like to get two days between squat and deadlift but often its only one rest day. I add some cardio on the treadmill for warm-up, usually try to keep it short, ten minutes and I raise the incline as high as it'll go. I'm basically trying to work up a bit of a sweat before I lift. I also finish on the treadmill and usually that depends on time/energy available as far as intensity/duration goes.
I do two sets of all lifts and aim for 6-8 reps on bench, deadlift, and chin-ups. I go for 8-10 reps on squat and dumbell shoulder-press. Basically when I can do two sets of the maximum number of reps, then the next week I'll add 10 pounds or 10%, whatever is more, assuming I can do at least two sets of the minimum number of reps for a given lift. Aim for 3-5 minutes of rest between sets, this is where having workout partners helps, adding/subtracting weight for each of us to complete a set usually allows for enough rest time between sets without someone else taking the squat/bench rack.
When I've done two sets at maximum reps for a lift, the next week I'll do 8 reps of a higher weight, say for bench, and it'll be pretty tough so I take off added weight off for the next set and do 10 reps of the previous week's weight. Obviously if I can do another set of the minimum reps, 8 in the case of bench for example, then I will-if not then quite often I'll be doing at least two sets of 8 with the added weight the next week. If that's the case I'll go for two sets of maximum reps the third week with the new weight. I recomend going a little lighter in the beginning with the knowledge you'll improve rapidly at the begining. That'll give your ligaments and tendons a little time to get used to your new routine.
My workout partners always want to lower the weight and add reps and sets but resist the temptation. If they've got tons of energy I usually talk them into burning it off with kettlebell swings or a set of Turkish get-ups, that usually saps their energy. Also it's important to track your progress, if you can't complete at least the same weight/reps as you did the week before, then consider that you likely need more rest days and perhaps better nutrition (more protein) for recovery and new growth. Don't be afraid to abandon a weekly schedule altogether and base it on your bodies recovery period, whatever that may be. Add or subtract lifts as necessary, such as something to target triceps or shoulders if that's what is limiting your bench or whatever, however try to avoid wasting time with nonsense lifts/exercises.